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how to start cashew farming in Nigeria

HOW TO START CASHEW FARMING IN NIGERIA: STEP BY STEP GUIDE Leave a comment

Cashew farming is a quiet way to make money, but you might not know it until you try it or get close to a dealer. Nigeria as a country makes a lot of money from exporting cashews.

According to the Cashew Association, we are the sixth largest producers of raw cashew nuts in Africa. We are behind Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mozambique.

Cashews make 10 times more money when they are roasted or processed than when they are sold raw. So, Mr. Audu Ogbeh, the minister of agriculture, said that Nigeria would stop selling raw cashew nuts in 2019 and instead process or roast them to make up for the high cost of exporting the nuts.

Nigeria needs to export about 500,000 metric tons of raw cashew to become the second largest exporter. Right now, we are a long way from that goal. This is where you, as an investor or business owner, can come in to help reach this goal.

cashew nut

Someone once said that agriculture is a business, not a project. I couldn’t care less about that. This post is mostly about that. To show you step-by-step how to run a successful cashew farming business. It takes 3 years for the business to become successful, but it was worth the wait. It costs a lot of money to plant and to gather the crop.

LAND PREPARATION

I wouldn’t tell you to rent land because it’s a long-term investment. So buy land in the village and make sure it is safe by getting the right papers. Sand with laterite is the best kind of soil to use. Cut down shrubs and trees and clear away the grass.

Use machines to till the land and make it flat. If there aren’t enough nutrients in the soil, mix sand with animal poop. You have to test the soil first to find out how many nutrients it has. Cashews can be grown in both wet and dry tropical areas.

PLANTING

It’s just as hard to grow cashews from seeds as it is to grow coffee or oil palm. Click here to find out about oil palm farming. So, it’s best to buy seedlings that have already grown from a well-known nursery with good species. Or, if the plants are grown from seedlings, it takes 3 years to get seedlings, but it takes 5 years to get direct plants from seeds.

Also, just like how oranges grown from seeds taste and produce less fruit than the parent plant, so do cashew plants grown from the seeds of a single cashew tree. Go with the grafted ones if you want to sell them. If you want to plant by yourself, use pots or plant directly into a prepared bed. Put two or three seeds into a hole that is 2 to 3 cm deep.

planting cashew

Every day, you should water the nursery. After 4–7 days, the seeds will start to grow. Like when growing coffee, use new seeds. The viability lasts from the first day until four months have passed, after which it starts to go down. Dry the seeds for 3 days in the sun.

The next day, plant them after letting them soak in water overnight. The standard spacing is 7m x 9m, but you can still plant at these distances.

On a hectare, 8m x 5m will give you 100 seedlings.

7.5 times 7.5 equals 175 per hectare.

8m by 8m equals 156 per hectare

Before the cashew tree grows big enough to cover the farm, you can plant other crops like cassava, plantain, pineapple, and so on.

FERTILIZATION

Use fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc. At every stage of their growth, cashew trees need nutrients to grow faster and make good nuts. Give them fertilizer while they are growing and again when they are flowering and producing fruit.

A mature cashew tree needs 15 kg of manure from a farm once a year.

Urea Fertilizers are the best for this purpose. Click Here to Buy Urea Fertilizer

IRRIGATION

Water your cashew farm when it’s dry or when there’s a drought during the wet season. To get more fruits, they need to get enough and regular water. Don’t bother to water the plants when it’s raining, but do it once or twice a week when it’s dry. In cashew farming, the best temperature range for growth is between 25C and 30C. Every day, you need 6 hours of direct sunlight. If you grow them in the wrong place, like in the shade, they won’t bear fruit.

PRUNING/MULCHING IN CASHEW FARMING

Cashew plants are pruned in the same way as hibiscus plants: remove tangled branches and clear out areas where there are too many branches so that clean, straight ones can grow. Check out my site if you want to learn how to grow hibiscus. it

Use composted manure as mulch on the whole farm to stop weeds from growing and to keep water in the soil.

PEST/DISEASES

Root and stem borer, tea mosquito, leaf miner, etc. are some of the pests. Diseases, such as twig and leaf drop, root rot, etc. Use pesticides and insecticides, plant resistant varieties. To find out how to use neem oil to get rid of pests and diseases, you might have to read my post on pepper farming.

Why You Should Start Growing Cashews

It is a long-term investment that can bring in money for more than 50 years. The best thing that comes from cashew farming is the cashew nut. But you can make more money by turning the apple into fruit juice.

The nuts are very popular, and the price keeps going up every year. This makes it a very profitable business.

Most of the time, the price of cashew nuts is set in dollars because most of the people who deal with them are exporters.

Cashew season lasts for three to four months. Can you imagine having to harvest for that long? The company is making money.

HARVESTING/DRYING OF CASHEW NUTS

In late January, the ripe fruit starts to fall. Make sure the area around the trees is clear before the fruit starts to fall. Remove the grass and other weeds from around the tree so that the raw cashew nuts can be picked easily. When the fruit falls, it means that they are ready to be eaten. To keep the quality from going down, pick the nuts within two to three days of when they fall.

Separate the apple from the nut with a sharp knife. If the nuts weren’t taken off well, it would affect the quality. Dry them on a clean surface and flip them often to make sure they dry evenly. Don’t dry them inside because it will take longer, which can cause them to go bad. Don’t dry them on a metal surface, either, because that will cause rust. When the nuts are dry enough, they will rattle when you turn them. It might take a few days, like two or three, for the nuts to dry, but you should always bring them inside at dusk to keep moisture from getting inside.

HOW TO STORE CASHEW NUTS

Keep them in jute bags instead of containers, sacks, plastic bags, or other similar things. Stitch the jute bag to keep it from going bad. Put the bags on wooden pallets and put them in a dry, well-ventilated place. Don’t put them on the floor to keep them from getting wet and going bad.

Leave 0.5 m of space between each bag so that air can flow well. Sell the nuts in the same year they were picked to keep them from going bad.

HOW TO ROAST CASHEW NUTS

Set a wire gauge over the fire, spread the nuts out evenly, and let the heat from the fire cook the nuts. Don’t let them burn; turn them every so often. When they’re done, they’ll smell and taste good; you can take one out to see. Roast them in groups until you’ve used up all of the nuts. Some people even rub oil or salt on nuts before they roast them to add flavour. You can also roast cashew nuts in the oven.

MARKETING

Find companies that buy them to export them. Most of these companies are in Lagos. There is a good cashew company representative for Indians in Nigeria. You can also sell directly to people in other countries. To do this, go to websites like Alibaba and type in “cashew nut buyers.” You will then see a list of people who want to buy cashew nuts. Start a conversation with anyone who interests you and make a deal.

If you don’t want to do all of this, you can put an ad online and let distributors and suppliers come to you to buy. But the big money is in how it is processed. The raw cashew nuts sell for much less than the kernels that have been processed.

CASHEW VARIETIES

  • Cashews from Brazil
  • Cashews from China
  • Cashew from India

Click Here to buy the best cashew seedling now from HTS Farms.

The Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) has made hybrid cashew nuts that mature and bear fruit in three years. The Jumbo hybrid is an example of one of these hybrids. One seedling cashew plant costs N350. There are large, medium, and small improved seedlings.

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO START A BUSINESS CASHEW FARMING?

Between N100,000 and N150,000 per hectare for land in the village

Based on a survey of N200,000,

Getting rid of, ploughing, and harrowing N200,000

Seedlings 350 x 100 = N35,000

Planting N10,000

Others cost N300,000

You can multiply that number by however many hectares you want. Note that the estimate wouldn’t be exactly the same because some things would cost less as the number of them went up.

CONCLUSION

Someone said that his Uncle planted 200 acres of cashews in 1998, kept adding to them, and now gets $20 million from them every year. Nigeria exports about 90% of the cashews it grows, mostly as kernels. Vietnam buys 60% of these exports. “Almost all states in the country have the potential to grow cashew,” says the Association of Cashew.

On the international market, a tonne of roasted cashew nuts costs $10,000, while a tonne of raw cashew nuts costs $1,200. Cashews are the second most important non-foreign exchange earner in Nigeria (NCAN)

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